History of the Surrounding Stations
History of the Stations
Kulkyne station was originally taken up in 1847 and named Gayfield. It comprised 64,000 acres of land and was taken up by James Crawford. Its northern boundary (somewhere near the present northern border of the Murray/Kulkyne National Park) was Carwarp Station. Kulkyne's southern border (About half way to Euston) was Bumbang Station. Bumbang Station's southern boundary reached to the other side of Euston. 1851 - T.J. Keene & R. Orr purchased Kulkyne. In 1856 it changed hands again, Robert Roe Orr and Richard Youl becoming the owners. In 1864 it was purchased by George Urquhart. In 1866 it was purchased by Henry Miller and then in 1883 the licence was forfeited. An aboriginal mission was established at Gayfield in 1874.
Kulkyne and Carwarp Stations each had about 30 miles of river front and reached about halfway to the Calder Highway of today.
Carwarp was taken up in 1847 as well, by John Kidd and James Brown, and also comprised 64000 acres. Carwarp's northern boundary (somewhere near Iraak) was Mildura Station. Carwarp, or Kidds Station as it was known, was sold in 1850 to the McGrath Bros. In 1861 it was again sold, to John Crozier, who in turn sold it in 1864 to Hugh Jamieson who also owned Mildura Station at the time. In 1878, Jamieson sold Carwarp to Alexander McEdward who also purchased Mildura Station at that time. In 1883, McEdward took in a partner and the Station was now owned by William Dean and Alexander McEdward. The Nangiloc/Colignan area was part of Carwarp Station, which had several owners until the lease expired in 1911. The area was then subdivided and leased to soldiers returning from the First World War.
Mildura Station was also taken up in 1847 by E.J. Hogg, for Hugh & Bushby Jamieson, but registered in Hogg's name and comprised 150,000 acres. Mildura was initially called Stateman, by Francis Jenkins, then Yerre Yerre station, and then in 1858 after they took control, Hugh & Bushby Jamieson applied to change the name to Mildura. Mildura Station's northern border was Kulnine Station. Bushby Jamieson was drowned in the Murray River, but Hugh continued at Mildura for 20 years, selling to Alexander McEdward in 1878. Bushby was an imposing fellow and a Justice of the Peace, sitting on the bench at the Wentworth Court. In 1883, Frederick Grant became a partner with McEdward in the ownership of Mildura.
Francis Jenkins was the first to arrive at Mildura, March 1847, swimming his 900 head of cattle across the river and establishing a hut and camp. He then went off to Adelaide to register his claim on the land, thinking he was in South Australia. He found otherwise and then had to apply to Melbourne. By the time his application was processed, September, the land had already been registered to Hogg (for Hugh & Bushby Jamieson), and Armourer Forster was in occupation. Hugh Jamieson arrived at the Station in July with 6000 sheep. Jenkins had to pack up his camp and cattle and swim back across the river, where he established Gol Gol Station.
1859 - The Jamieson's applied for Pre-emptive Right to 320 acres of land around their Mildura Homestead.
Pre-emptive Right - A law had been en-acted in 1847, allowing the purchase of the section of land on which homesteads and other improvements had been made. Where river frontage was involved, the ownership ran right to the middle of the river. Station owners could now own their land, whereas previously they had only leased it.
Also in 1847 - 18 year leases were granted to squatters in "unsettled" districts, the rent being proportional to the number of stock on the station, the minimum number having to be 4000 sheep and 640 cattle.
Both of these laws made it more viable to make improvements to the land and to establish more permanent dwellings, buildings and farm improvements..
Kulnine Station was taken up in 1845 by John Hawdon and comprised 57,600 acres. In 1850 the Station was purchased by Crozier & Rutherford and then in 1857 it was divided into Kulnine Upper and Kulnine Lower with the boundary at Wentworth. The southern boundary of Kulnine Lower (Cowra) was near Merbein. It is interesting that the Station name was spelt Culnine.
In 1848 John Hawdon, fell from his horse. He was taken to his tent where he later died. He is buried in the cemetery at the northern end of the Old Mildura Homestead, among the saltbush and box trees that were his home. His grave is beside that of his bushman friend, Armourer Forster, who died in 1889.
All of these local stations suffered due to isolation and the slow and inefficient transport system available to them. Most stores and supplies were carried in by bullock wagons, which returned to the sea ports with the station produce, mainly wool. A round trip by the station bullock team, to Melbourne and back, took in the vicinity of 3 months. All of this changed in 1853, when the first two paddle steamers ventured up the river.
(Thanks to Frank Tucker for compiling this information)